Oncology is the medical specialty that deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. Oncology, as a multifaceted field, encompasses specialized branches that collectively address the diverse facets of cancer care and medical professionals who specialize in oncology are called oncologists. They work closely with a multidisciplinary team to provide comprehensive care for individuals with cancer.
Medical oncologists navigate the intricacies of cancer treatment by deploying a range of therapies, including chemotherapy, targeted treatments, and immunotherapy. Surgical oncologists, armed with surgical expertise, undertake tumour removal surgeries and related procedures, contributing significantly to treatment plans. Radiation oncologists employ precision in administering radiation therapy to target cancer cells while minimizing harm to healthy tissues. Paediatric oncologists specialize in tailoring diagnoses and treatments to the unique needs of children facing cancer, considering both the medical and emotional aspects. Hematologic oncologists focus on blood and lymphatic system cancers, offering specialized care for conditions like leukaemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. Gynaecologic and genitourinary oncologists tackle cancers specific to the female reproductive and genitourinary systems, respectively, employing multidisciplinary approaches. Thoracic and head and neck oncologists navigate the complexities of chest and oral cavity cancers, employing diverse interventions.
Oncology is a rapidly evolving field with advancements in research and treatment modalities. The collaborative efforts of different oncology subspecialties contribute to improving outcomes and the quality of life for individuals affected by cancer.